Impregnation of -SO3H (Sulfonation), -HSO4 (Sulfatation) group into the main bone of the chain. These will convert hydrophobic chain to hydrophilic ends. These are functioned mostly as emulsifiers or surfactant.
Impregnation of -H2PO4 (or its derivatives) into the system of organic acid bone (hydrophobic) to generate phosphate esters (hydrophilic) functioning as emulsifiers or surfactants.
Polymers & Esters
These are built up organic substances, made of monomers (for polymers) or acids/alcohols (for esters) as well as from its corresponding derivatives, to reach their required properties.
Cross-linking substances to achieve their best chemistry performance for conducting widespread chemical treatments.