1Impregnation of -SO3H (Sulfonation), -HSO4 (Sulfatation) group into the main bone of the chain. These will convert hydrophobic chain to hydrophilic ends. these are functioned mostly as emulsifiers / surfactants.
2Impregnation of -H2PO4 ( or its derivates) into the system of organic acid bone (hydrophobic) to generate phosphate esters (hydrophilic) functioning as emulsifiers / surfactants
Polymers & Esters
3These are building up organic substances to reach their required properties made of monomers (for polymers) or Acids/Alchohols (for Esters) as well as from its corresponding derivates
4Cross-linking substances to achieve their best chemistry performance and conducting widespread other related chemical treatments